- Where does viral RNA replication occur?
- Where do DNA viruses multiply?
- How does RNA virus survive?
- How do RNA viruses replicate?
- What viruses are RNA based?
- What is required for a virus to reproduce?
- Can viruses reproduce on their own?
- What happens when a virus replicates?
- How fast do viruses multiply?
- What does an RNA virus do?
- Are viruses living or nonliving?
- Can viruses have double stranded DNA?
- What kills RNA virus?
- Is there a vaccine for RNA viruses?
- Why are RNA viruses more dangerous?
- How does RNAi defend against viruses?
- What is the difference between a DNA and RNA virus?
- Are viruses that target bacteria?
Where does viral RNA replication occur?
RNA replication occurs in the cytoplasm and is carried out by the viral RNA polymerase.
The full length plus strand is coated with nucleocapsid protein as it is made (mRNAs are not coated with this protein, which would interfere with the host protein translation machinery)..
Where do DNA viruses multiply?
Most double-stranded DNA viruses replicate within the host cell nucleus, including polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, and herpesviruses—poxviruses, however, replicate in the cytoplasm.
How does RNA virus survive?
Abstract RNA viruses exploit all known mechanisms of genetic variation to ensure their survival. Distinctive features of RNA virus replication include high mutation rates, high yields, and short replication times. As a consequence, RNA viruses replicate as complex and dynamic mutant swarms, called viral quasispecies.
How do RNA viruses replicate?
RNA viruses replicate their genomes using virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The RNA genome is the template for synthesis of additional RNA strands.
What viruses are RNA based?
1.1. RNA Viruses. Human diseases causing RNA viruses include Orthomyxoviruses, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Ebola disease, SARS, influenza, polio measles and retrovirus including adult Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
What is required for a virus to reproduce?
Viruses are tiny infectious agents that rely on living cells to multiply. They may use an animal, plant, or bacteria host to survive and reproduce. As such, there is some debate as to whether or not viruses should be considered living organisms. A virus that is outside of a host cell is known as a virion.
Can viruses reproduce on their own?
How do viruses multiply? Due to their simple structure, viruses cannot move or even reproduce without the help of an unwitting host cell.
What happens when a virus replicates?
Viral replication is the formation of biological viruses during the infection process in the target host cells. Viruses must first get into the cell before viral replication can occur. Through the generation of abundant copies of its genome and packaging these copies, the virus continues infecting new hosts.
How fast do viruses multiply?
The reproductive cycle of viruses ranges from 8 hrs (picornaviruses) to more than 72 hrs (some herpesviruses). The virus yields per cell range from more than 100,000 poliovirus particles to several thousand poxvirus particles.
What does an RNA virus do?
Retroviruses use reverse transcriptase to transform their single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. It is DNA that stores the genome of human cells and cells from other higher life forms. Once transformed from RNA to DNA, the viral DNA can be integrated into the genome of the infected cells.
Are viruses living or nonliving?
Viruses are not living things. Viruses are complicated assemblies of molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, but on their own they can do nothing until they enter a living cell. Without cells, viruses would not be able to multiply. Therefore, viruses are not living things.
Can viruses have double stranded DNA?
Many animal viruses use double-stranded DNA for their genomes. Herpesvirus is a simple virus that has a protein coat and outer envelope surrounding the double-stranded DNA genome.
What kills RNA virus?
Researchers have developed CRISPR-Cas13 enzyme-based technology that can be programmed to both detect and destroy RNA-based viruses in human cells. Researchers have turned a CRISPR RNA-cutting enzyme into an antiviral that can be programmed to detect and destroy RNA-based viruses in human cells.
Is there a vaccine for RNA viruses?
RNA vaccines are being explored as a way to more rapidly and cheaply produce vaccines for these diseases, particularly in response to emerging outbreaks. Clinical trials have been carried out or are ongoing on mRNA vaccines for influenza, cytomegalovirus, HIV-1, rabies and Zika virus.
Why are RNA viruses more dangerous?
RNA viruses generally have very high mutation rates compared to DNA viruses, because viral RNA polymerases lack the proofreading ability of DNA polymerases. The genetic diversity of RNA viruses is one reason why it is difficult to make effective vaccines against them.
How does RNAi defend against viruses?
In insects, the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway plays a major role in antiviral responses, as shown against many RNA viruses. The response includes the cleavage of double-stranded RNA genome or intermediates, produced during replication, into viral short interfering RNAs (v-siRNAs).
What is the difference between a DNA and RNA virus?
DNA viruses contain usually double‐stranded DNA (dsDNA) and rarely single‐stranded DNA (ssDNA). These viruses replicate using DNA‐dependent DNA polymerase. … Compared to DNA virus genomes, which can encode up to hundreds of viral proteins, RNA viruses have smaller genomes that usually encode only a few proteins.
Are viruses that target bacteria?
Bacteriophages — a name that literally means “bacteria-eating” — are viruses that target, infect, and destroy different strains of bacteria.